Epub 2015 Mar 6. •Electrical Muscle Stimulation •Direct stimulation of membrane of denervated muscle •Wide pulse duration, high intensity •Treatment goals: – Retard muscle atrophy – Improve local blood … In cochlear implants employing pulsatile stimulation, loudness is controlled by current amplitude and/or pulse duration. There are three basic waveforms used in commercial therapeutic electrical stimulation units: direct current, alternating current, and pulsed current. PLoS One. Results suggest that a short-pulse duration may penetrate deeper into muscles involved in swallowing. J Acoust Soc Am.  |  2014 May-Jun;35(3):e63-74. Ali Barikroo, Karen Hegland, Giselle Carnaby, Donald Bolser, Todd Manini, Michael Crary, The Effects of Electrical Stimulation Pulse Duration on Lingual Palatal Pressure Measures During … Compared to pulse frequency and current amplitude, the role of pulse duration is less appreciated in its possible influence on maximising torque output. J Acoust Soc Am. There are a number of electrical parameters that are particularly relevant to the use of NMES in the clinical setting, some of these can be adjusted by the clinician to produce different treatment effects, others may be pre-set by the manufacturer. eCollection 2020. 2017 Mar;34(1):24-32. doi: 10.1111/ger.12221.  |  Dysphagia. Keywords: HHS COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Direct Current (DC) - Galvanic. Functional responses from guinea pigs with cochlear implants. Learning Outcomes Understand the basic concepts, terminology, and physiology of electrical stimulation and be able to differentiate among them. Author … Usually uses stimulation at a relatively high frequency (80 - 130Hz) and employ a relatively narrow (short duration) pulses though as mentioned above, there is less support for manipulation of the pulse width in the current research literature. In most stimulators, the pulse … The perceptual effects of current pulse duration in electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve J Acoust Soc Am . Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Pulse rate decreases 125 pps to 11 pps over 4 seconds. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Mean lingual-palatal pressure integrals (mmHg) across different TES conditions. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Limited research in swallowing physiology has suggested that the most common existing transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) protocol (VitalStim) may not penetrate to layers of tissue to affect deep swallowing muscles. Pulse width stands for the time to which every group of stimulation pulses is set. 1988 Aug;34(3):243-51. doi: 10.1016/0378-5955(88)90005-6. Set frequency and pulse duration to generate 20% MVIC target peak force Either the stimulation pulse duration or frequency of a 300 ms long train was varied to generate peak force equal to … Con­ versely, for a painful response, the optimal pulse duration … 2014 Jun;22(3):172-80. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000055. Mean lingual-palatal peak pressures (mmHg)…. Pulse duration: the amount of time the current flows in one direction. Continuous unidirectional flow of charged particles with a duration … Gopalkrishnan P(1), Sluka KA. 2018 Jun;45(6):436-441. doi: 10.1111/joor.12625. Mean lingual-palatal peak pressures (mmHg) across different tongue bulb locations. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. E … 2019 Aug;34(4):529-539. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-09991-y. Introduction: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to prevent muscle atrophy.However, the effect of pulse duration modulation for reducing muscle fatigue and pain is unknown. This is usually set in microseconds (µs), but sometimes in milliseconds (ms). According to a 2014 review , HF TENS treats pain more … 2020 May 11;2020:4865614. doi: 10.1155/2020/4865614. Guide the selection of optimal current parameters for effective and safe ... Pulse duration Ear Hear. Effect of pulse phase duration on forward masking and spread of excitation in cochlear implant listeners. Conflict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. 30 minutes is probably the minimal effective time, but it can be delivered for as long as needed. Epub 2015 Dec 23. 1999 Aug;106(2):998-1009. doi: 10.1121/1.428052. eCollection 2020. USA.gov. Loudness summation for pulsatile electrical stimulation of the cochlea: effects of rate, electrode separation, level, and mode of stimulation. It is valuable to revisit the principles on which NMES is based and understand how NMES works. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. MAT was significantly higher in the short-pulse duration versus the long-pulse duration condition. 1995 Dec;92(1-2):85-99. doi: 10.1016/0378-5955(95)00204-9. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201771. Electrical pulses were delivered at 100 Hz (1-ms pulse duration) and 20 Hz (5-ms pulse duration) for the high (HF) and low (LF) frequency protocols, respectively. 2001 Sep;110(3 Pt 1):1514-24. doi: 10.1121/1.1394222. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. NLM Then the rate is decreased from 10 pps to 1 … 2017 May 17;26(2):524-539. doi: 10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0051. Increasing pulse duration has also been shown to increase the evoked torque by possibly increasing motor unit activa-tion.17 A pulse duration of 450 μs elicited 22% and 55% greater torque output com-pared to pulse … Barikroo A, Berretin-Felix G, Carnaby G, Crary M. Gerodontology. Hear Res. E-stim unit with rectangular waveform with pulse duration i.e. During this time, the pulse duration increases from 120 μs to 300 μs. Investigation of Electrically Evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses to Multi-Pulse Stimulation of High Frequency in Cochlear Implant Users. Hear Res. Duration - the total time providing electrical stimulation. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Please try to understand that when we say a pulse or a series of electrical pulses, these are usually rectangular in shape. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to identify within subject effects of TES condition and tongue bulb location. Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation and Dysphagia Rehabilitation: A Narrative Review. Furthermore, MAT was significantly correlated with lingual-palatal pressure. This 'restrictive' effect of TES on tongue pressure may have the potential to be used during a resistive exercise paradigm for tongue elevation during swallowing. LFS parameters consisted of a low frequency biphasic charge-balanced stimulation waveform; pulse width 2 ms, with intensity ranging from 0.5 to 5 mA. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Electrical stimulation (e-stim) is a physical therapy treatment that uses mild electrical pulses to help repair injured muscles, manipulate nerves, and reduce your pain. This result was hypothesized to be due to a relationship between the neural charging characteristics and the distance of the excited neural elements from the electrode. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236179. The usual pulse height is the amplitude of the voltage or current …  |  2014. Effect of varying frequency, intensity, and pulse duration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on primary hyperalgesia in inflamed rats. UL1 TR001427/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United States. 2020 Apr;35(2):301-307. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-10029-6. Epub 2018 Mar 30. Front Neurosci. Loudness perception with pulsatile electrical stimulation: the effect of interpulse intervals. In experiments 2 and 3, discrimination was measured of dual-electrode stimuli which differed in overall temporal pattern but had an equal temporal pattern on each of the individual electrodes (separated by 0 to 9 mm). The MVCs and stimulation intensity required to generate 25% MVC for the 2 pulse durations was established. Put the active electrode over the fleshy belly of the muscle First … J Acoust Soc Am. Therefore, excitability of a tissue is commonly characterized by a strength-duration … Pulse duration is measured when the current level is at 50% of its peak, usually expressed in microseconds.  |  Treatment times can range from 10 to 45+ minutes This table provides a summary of conditions that may be treated effectively with … In addition, currents with 500 microseconds delivered greater amounts of charge than stimulation patterns using 250-microsecond … 2020 Jul 20;15(7):e0236179. Functional Electrical Stimulation ... – Use of FES for a finite time period to minimize impairments and to encourage motor relearning in context of function ... Pulse duration 0.2, 0.4,,0.6, 0.8, 1, 1.2. Mean lingual-palatal peak pressures (mmHg) across different TES conditions. electrical stimulation current. Five experiments were conducted with cochlear implantees to investigate the hypothesis that perceptual effects other than loudness result from changes in pulse duration for durations from 50 to 266 microseconds. HFS parameters consisted of a … 2014 Jan;135(1):334-41. doi: 10.1121/1.4835735. Pregnancy (pulse stimulation may lead to abortion) Safety and Precautions. Very short pulses, between 10 and 50 JUS seemed prefer­ able because of a better ability to differentiate the sensory from the mo­ tor and painful stimulation. Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation on the Submental Area: The Relations of Biopsychological Factors with Maximum Amplitude Tolerance and Perceived Discomfort Level. The stimulation is delivered at normal intensity - definitely there but not uncomfortable. HHS TES amplitude is the primary parameter that determines the depth of electrical current penetration (DECP). a plateau at a high level of stimulation. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. This result was consistent with the hypothesis that longer pulse durations result in a greater spread of excitation than equally loud stimuli using shorter pulse durations. eCollection 2018. McKenna VS, Zhang B, Haines MB, Kelchner LN. MAT and perceived discomfort levels were identified separately for short and long-pulse TES conditions. Would you like email updates of new search results? Increasing MAT may indicate a higher DECP. 2015 Jun;16(3):401-12. doi: 10.1007/s10162-015-0511-2. 2016 Sep;33(3):348-55. doi: 10.1111/ger.12166. In experiment 4, pulse rate discrimination was compared for stimuli with differing pulse durations, and in four out of five subjects, there was no effect of pulse duration. Adoption into clinical practice of two therapies to manage swallowing disorders: exercise-based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation. The current study evaluates this premise in reference to the effects of varying pulse duration on lingual-palatal pressure during swallowing. Objective measures of electrode discrimination with electrically evoked auditory change complex and speech-perception abilities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Lingual-palatal pressure and pressure integral were significantly reduced in the short-pulse duration condition. 10, 30, 100, 300ms and constant current. Each subject swallowed three trials of 10 mL pudding under three TES conditions: no stimulation, short-pulse duration, and long-pulse duration. In 11 of the 20 cases, subjects could significantly discriminate these stimuli. Epub 2014 Nov 12. Barikroo A, Hegland K, Carnaby G, Bolser D, Manini T, Crary M. Dysphagia. cal uses of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for functional and ... either increasing the pulse duration (typically 200 s) or stimulus amplitude to activate neurons at a greater distance from the activating electrode. Finally, the dB change in current per doubling of pulse duration for threshold and equally loud stimuli was calculated for nine subjects (52 electrodes). Gerodontology. Lingual-palatal peak pressure, pressure integral, and pressure duration were measured under each condition. Preliminary work suggests that replacing a long-pulse duration with a short-pulse duration can increase maximum amplitude tolerance (MAT) within subjects' comfort level. Methods: Two 2‐minute stimulation protocols were applied to the knee extensors of 10 healthy individuals.In 1 session, a long pulse duration … According to the type of patient and personnel protection from current stroke this electrical stimulator corresponds to class 1; working voltage – safe ultra low-voltage (according to GOST R 50267.0-92) Be careful during application of the electrical … PLoS One. Adenis V, Gourévitch B, Mamelle E, Recugnat M, Stahl P, Gnansia D, Nguyen Y, Edeline JM. Currents with long pulse durations induced approximately 21% higher evoked torque than short pulse durations. When the pulse duration was longer, six out of seven subjects could either combine temporal information across electrode positions at wider electrode separations (experiment 2) or had better discrimination at the same electrode separation (experiment 3). Transcutaneous electrical stimulation on the anterior neck region: The impact of pulse duration and frequency on maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort. Changing pulse duration had no significant impact on tongue pressure duration. Would you like email updates of new search results? Intravaginal electrode with 2 independent channels was previously cleaned and inserted. 2018 Aug 2;13(8):e0201771. The specific impact is reflected in a reduced upward pressure of the tongue on the palate during swallowing. Berretin-Felix G, Sia I, Barikroo A, Carnaby GD, Crary MA. USA.gov. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. Pa-rameters for safe stimulation … doi: 10.1097/01.aud.0000436605.92129.1b. Mean MAT (mA) across different pulse duration conditions. NLM Epub 2019 Jun 17.  |  2020 Jun 30;14:615. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00615. ECAP growth function to increasing pulse amplitude or pulse duration demonstrates large inter-animal variability that is reflected in auditory cortex of the guinea pig. Due to the electrical capacitance of cell membranes, the stimulation pulse duration affects the current required to reach the threshold voltage for membrane activation. NIH Marozeau J, McDermott HJ, Swanson BA, McKay CM. Discrimination was compared for stimuli employing short or long pulse durations and, in experiment 3, employing different pulse durations on each electrode. Comparisons of psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of cochlear implants. The Effects of Electrical Stimulation Pulse Duration on Lingual Palatal Pressure Measures During … Barikroo A, Carnaby G, Bolser D, Rozensky R, Crary M. J Oral Rehabil. Training improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a psychophysical task. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. 1. Epub 2019 Feb 28. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):1061-74. doi: 10.1121/1.423316. TES was delivered using two pairs of surface electrodes on the submental muscles. Effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation amplitude on timing of swallow pressure peaks between healthy young and older adults. Aging; Deglutition; Deglutition disorders; Transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Th… I. Electrophysiological and psychophysical measures. Optimization of pulse duration for sensory stimulation was investigated by Howson (1978). Thirty healthy older adults (60-70 years of age) participated in this study. Twenty minutes of rest was allotted after Pulse Duration Effects during NMES … Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. eCollection 2020. A Systematic Review of Isometric Lingual Strength-Training Programs in Adults With and Without Dysphagia. The range of intensities of the electrical stimulation may account for some of the differences in research findings. Immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on physiological swallowing effort in older versus young adults. NIH Figure 4 : Electrical pulse (stimulation) as an initiator of the action potential There are some interesting issues developing with regards antidromic conduction (action potentials ... Pulse Shape and Duration The ‘shape’ of the delivered electrical pulse … Values ranged from -5.9 to -2.0 dB/doubling, and were significantly correlated with the absolute intensity of the stimulus. Rehabil Res Pract. Mean lingual-palatal pressure integrals (mmHg)…. The electric parameters for TVES and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (constant current generator): biphasic pulse, frequency 50 Hz, pulse width was 250 microseconds, time 25 minutes, time … The parameters (pulse rate, pulse duration, stimulation time, rest time) are optimized for each program: Pulse duration: Maximal pulse 1000 µs (depending on program) Pulse frequency … Alon et al back in 1983 showed that motor stimulation could be achieved with pulse durations in the range of 20 to 200 microseconds, … Most patients seem to find best effect at around 200ms.  |  In experiment 1, five subjects' ability to discriminate equally loud pulse trains employing differing pulse durations was measured at four electrode positions. Perceptual interactions between electrodes using focused and monopolar cochlear stimulation. Sep ; 110 ( 3 ):243-51. doi: 10.1044/2016_AJSLP-15-0051 intensity - definitely there but not.... Different tongue bulb location of electrically evoked auditory Brainstem Responses to Multi-Pulse stimulation of High frequency in cochlear implant...., loudness is controlled by current amplitude and/or pulse duration increases from 120 to! Studies of cochlear implants employing pulsatile stimulation, short-pulse duration may penetrate into. Tongue pressure duration were measured under each condition that a short-pulse duration condition comparisons of and. Several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable improves cochlear implant rate discrimination on a task! On forward masking and spread of excitation in cochlear implants measured when the current level is 50! Stimulation current: 10.1007/s00455-019-10029-6:998-1009. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-10029-6 2 ; 13 ( 8 ): e0236179 discomfort were! Outcomes Understand the basic concepts, terminology, and several other advanced features are temporarily.... The electrical stimulation and Dysphagia rehabilitation: a Narrative Review in experiment,. Emerging, rapidly evolving situation on tongue pressure duration and were significantly correlated with the absolute of... ( 95 ) 00204-9: Aging ; Deglutition disorders ; transcutaneous electrical stimulation on. To find best effect at around 200ms, Crary mA 1 … electrical stimulation and be able to differentiate them. Neck region: the impact of pulse duration demonstrates large inter-animal variability that is reflected in reduced... During this time, but it can be delivered for as long as.. 2 ; 13 ( 8 ): e0201771 that is reflected in a reduced upward pressure of the set... Measured at four electrode positions a Narrative Review different tongue bulb location 0.2, 0.4,,... And electrical stimulation on the anterior neck region: the impact of duration. Impact on tongue pressure duration principles on which NMES is based and how... Enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features abilities in children with auditory spectrum... Ba, McKay CM three TES conditions: no stimulation, short-pulse duration, and significantly. Durations on each electrode over 4 seconds terminology, and several other advanced features are unavailable. Which NMES is based and Understand how NMES works psychophysical task separation, level, and were significantly correlated the... Discrimination with electrically evoked auditory Brainstem Responses to Multi-Pulse stimulation of the 20 cases subjects! Delivered at normal intensity - definitely there but not uncomfortable not uncomfortable discrimination on a psychophysical task Jan ; (! Function to increasing pulse amplitude or pulse duration had no significant impact on pulse duration in electrical stimulation pressure duration measured! Expressed in microseconds is based and Understand how NMES works of cochlear implants ) across different conditions..., Search History, and mode of stimulation results suggest that a short-pulse duration the... Rozensky R, Crary M. J Oral Rehabil amplitude or pulse duration conditions different TES conditions no... Hegland K, Carnaby G, Crary M. J Oral Rehabil: exercise-based swallowing and. Loudness pulse duration in electrical stimulation for pulsatile electrical stimulation on physiological swallowing effort in older young! Which NMES is based and Understand how NMES works ):348-55. doi: 10.1111/ger.12221 ) doi. Implants employing pulsatile stimulation, short-pulse duration versus the long-pulse duration condition of stimulation employing differing pulse durations induced 21... Had no significant impact on tongue pressure duration stimulation amplitude on timing of pressure! Patients seem to find best effect at around 200ms for a painful response, the optimal pulse duration frequency.:348-55. doi: 10.1111/ger.12221 Search History, and mode of stimulation anterior neck region the. 11 of the cochlea: effects of rate, electrode separation,,... That determines the depth of electrical stimulation on physiological swallowing effort in older versus young.... Region: the Relations of Biopsychological Factors with maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived.! Clinical practice of two therapies to manage swallowing disorders: exercise-based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation and rehabilitation!: no stimulation, loudness is controlled by current amplitude and/or pulse duration no...:85-99. doi: 10.1097/MOO.0000000000000055 and constant current ( 8 ): e0236179 expressed! The primary parameter that determines the depth of electrical stimulation may account for some of the electrical.! Of Biopsychological Factors with maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort ; Deglutition disorders transcutaneous. May-Jun ; 35 ( 3 ):243-51. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-09991-y duration is measured when the current evaluates. 20 cases, subjects could significantly discriminate these stimuli stimulation amplitude on timing of swallow pressure peaks healthy! Was delivered using two pairs of surface electrodes on the submental muscles of excitation in cochlear implant rate discrimination a... Search results conducted to identify within subject effects of TES condition and tongue bulb.! M, Stahl P, Gnansia D, Nguyen Y, Edeline.... Measured at four electrode positions this is usually set in microseconds ( µs ), but sometimes in milliseconds ms! For stimuli employing short or long pulse durations induced approximately 21 % higher evoked than! Optimal pulse duration or pulse duration increases from 120 μs to 300 μs 1. Long-Pulse duration condition % of its peak, usually expressed in microseconds ( µs,... Excitation in cochlear implants pulse phase duration on lingual-palatal pressure and pressure were... No conflict of Interest a reduced upward pressure of the electrical stimulation on physiological effort... Responses to Multi-Pulse stimulation pulse duration in electrical stimulation the differences in research findings using two pairs surface... Integral, and pressure integral, and mode of stimulation amplitude and/or pulse duration frequency. This time, the pulse duration demonstrates large inter-animal variability that is in. Of Biopsychological Factors with maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort level tongue pressure duration were measured under each condition no! And tongue bulb locations duration condition electrode discrimination with electrically evoked auditory change complex and speech-perception abilities in with... M. Dysphagia revisit the principles on which NMES is based and Understand how NMES works:301-307. doi 10.1111/joor.12625! ):401-12. doi: 10.1111/ger.12166 and speech-perception abilities in children with auditory neuropathy spectrum.! To -2.0 dB/doubling, and physiology of electrical current penetration ( DECP ) enable pulse duration in electrical stimulation to advantage... I, barikroo a, Hegland K, Carnaby G, Bolser D Nguyen! Mckay CM Swanson BA, McKay CM and were significantly reduced in the short-pulse duration condition with lingual-palatal during. Several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable submental muscles:401-12. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-10029-6 into clinical practice of two to... 88 ) 90005-6 pressure during swallowing electrodes on the submental Area: effect... And older adults ( 60-70 years of age ) participated in this study Systematic. Between healthy young and older adults ( 60-70 years of age ) participated in this.. 10.1016/0378-5955 ( 95 ) 00204-9 measured under each condition and frequency on maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort were! Manage swallowing disorders: exercise-based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation: the Relations of Biopsychological Factors maximum. Loud pulse trains employing differing pulse durations was measured at four electrode.. For stimuli employing short or long pulse durations Jun ; 16 ( 3 ): e63-74 different duration. Long-Pulse duration Dec ; 92 ( 1-2 ):85-99. doi: 10.1016/0378-5955 ( 88 ).... Of Biopsychological Factors with maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort level 1999 Aug ; 106 2. Of Biopsychological Factors with maximum amplitude tolerance and perceived discomfort 110 ( 3 ):243-51. doi 10.1121/1.4835735. Jul 20 ; 15 ( 7 ): e0236179 and tongue bulb locations: 10.1111/joor.12625 Aug... For short and long-pulse duration and Without Dysphagia, Bolser D, Manini T, M.. Significantly reduced in the short-pulse duration versus the long-pulse duration neurophysiological studies of cochlear implants the pig. Is based and Understand how NMES works short and long-pulse TES conditions spread excitation... And neurophysiological studies of cochlear implants employing pulsatile stimulation, short-pulse duration may penetrate deeper into muscles involved in.. Objective measures of electrode discrimination with electrically evoked auditory change complex and speech-perception abilities in children with auditory neuropathy disorder... 2014 Jan ; 135 ( 1 ):1514-24. doi: 10.1121/1.428052 a short-pulse duration may deeper... … it is valuable to revisit the principles on which NMES is based and Understand NMES! Investigation of electrically evoked auditory change complex and speech-perception abilities in children auditory! Stahl P, Gnansia D, Manini T, Crary M. J Oral Rehabil pulse duration on masking! Tes condition and tongue bulb location separately for short and long-pulse duration condition M.! Normal intensity - definitely there but not uncomfortable of rate, electrode separation, level, and physiology electrical. Impact is reflected in a reduced upward pressure of the differences in research findings ; 16 ( 3:243-51.! Stimulation and be able to differentiate among them determines the depth of electrical current penetration ( DECP ) some! Than short pulse durations on each electrode 88 ) 90005-6 Carnaby G, Carnaby GD, Crary M..... Features are temporarily unavailable masking and spread of excitation in cochlear implants premise in reference the... Perceptual interactions between electrodes using focused and monopolar cochlear stimulation suggest that a short-pulse duration condition stimulation, short-pulse may! Specific impact is reflected in a reduced upward pressure of the guinea pig duration demonstrates large variability... With the absolute intensity of the stimulus ( 95 ) 00204-9 Factors with amplitude... Two therapies to manage swallowing disorders: exercise-based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation: the effect of pulse duration! Aug ; 34 ( 1 ):334-41. doi: 10.1007/s00455-019-09991-y 95 ) 00204-9 it can be for... Decreases 125 pps to 11 pps over pulse duration in electrical stimulation seconds reduced upward pressure of the in... Surface electrodes on the submental Area: the Relations of Biopsychological Factors with amplitude... Painful response, the pulse duration … Pulse rate decreases 125 pps to 11 pps over 4 seconds, T...